1788 Mozart No. 40

1788 W. A. Mozart Symphony No. 40
Instrumentation Strings, flute, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns
Movements I: Allegro molto  (g) II: Andante (Eb) III: Menuetto (g) IV: Allegro assai (g)
Overview This is one of only two Mozart symphonies that begin and end in a minor key but its two-note upbeat motif begins what is one of his most famous symphonic works.

Look at a score of this work / Watch on YouTube

Essay Points
D) 3rd mov. / Minuet The minuet third movement stays in G minor and is very stormy with the triple-time dance feel disrupted by frequent syncopations and hemiolas. The trio brings brief respite from the stormy mood with an elegant and delicate G major.

Listen to the beginning of the minuet

Listen to the beginning of the trio


F) Dev. of orchestra Very independent use of woodwind and brass, with some good examples in the third movement, particularly the trio.
I) Melody / theme Although the melody at the beginning of first movement is constructed from short melodic ideas, the overall effect is of a lyrical (if slightly breathless) melody in which the emphasis is on the broad sweep of each phrase (compare with Haydn 94, in which the melody is a relentless series of repetitions and developments of the motivic ideas with less emphasis on the longer line).

Listen to the opening of the first movement:

J) Texture The third movement uses imitation to build up to the cadences at the end of each section of Minuet.
K) Rhythm Hemiolas in the minuet as noted above.
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