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9 Pivot modulations

These modulating phrases offer simple harmonic models for moving from tonic to dominant major (e.g. C major to G major).

1) Thema from Mozart Sonata in D (KV. 284)


2) Allegretto from Mozart Sonata in Bb (KV. 333)


3) Allegro from Corelli Trio Sonata in C (Op. 5/3)


4) Moderato from Haydn Divertimento in E major (Hob. XVI: 13)

This features a more abrupt modulation rather than a pivot. The chromatic change in from iib in the tonic to V in the dominant (F# minor to major –  A to A#) is often done without the intervening root position ii.


5) First movement from Haydn Sonata No. 3 in F (Hob. XVI: 23)

This is more complicated, being longer and involving another key in between tonic and dominant.